Tag Archives: Grizzly Bears

Veto #HJResolution69

As you know, Congress passed a measure, under the CRA, authored by Representative Don Young, which would undo the Alaska National Wildlife Refuges Rule. The resolution will now be sent to the White House for the Presidential signature. If the measure of disapproval is enacted and signed by the President, not only does it strike down the Alaska National Wildlife Refuges Rule, but will also prevent USFWS from ever promulgating “substantially the same rule” without explicit authorization from Congress. 

Our only hope in stopping this abhorrent piece of legislation is a veto by the President. Note: Congress can override a veto with a two-thirds vote in both the House and Senate (If this occurs, though more than likely would not, the measure becomes law over the President’s objection).

Following is a small set of tweets to send to President Trump, as well as a simple copy and paste email. This, my friends, is the grand finale, our final hope in stopping animal cruelty from resuming on our National Wildlife Refuges in Alaska.

Before I let you get on with it, there is one important matter that needs to be clarified:

Joint resolutions are like bills, in that they require the approval of both Chambers, in identical form, and the President’s signature, to become law (unless used for proposing amendments to the Constitution).

H.J.Resolution 69 passed the House on February 16, 2017. The measure was then sent to the Senate for consideration and passed on March 21, 2017. The Senate was not considering S.J.Resolution 18. The resolution does not change in any form, including it’s title. H.J. Resolution 69 now goes to the President for signing. Please tap above links to see the progress of both resolutions (you will see that S.J.Resolution 18 is still in committee). Sending tweets with a hashtag referring to S.J.Res.18 are incorrect. 
Several organizations believed that the Senate version would be brought to the floor for a vote, and alerted their members to call/email their Senators asking them to oppose the Senate resolution. This has created a huge mixup, as the version voted on was from the House. Other organizations, on the other hand, have asked you to address the correct resolution, which is H.J.Res.69. So I ask you, please do not tweet “SJRes18”, it is no longer part of the equation. 

But, who am I, and why should you believe me. Fair enough:

Let me give you an example. Another measure introduced under the CRA was the Disapproval of the Stream Protection Rule,  H.J.Resolution 38. This measure was introduced in the House January 30, 2017 and passed two days later. This disgraceful resolution was then rushed over to the Senate, and passed the very next day. H.J.Resolution 38 was then presented to the President who signed it into law 2 weeks later (10 days after receiving it). Meanwhile, the Senate version, S.J.Resolution 10, like S.J.Resolution 18, with the same language as its counterpart in the House, remained in Committee and was never brought to the floor. Again, tap above links and see for yourself. That being said, I hope that you please stick to the hashtag: HJResolution69.  

Onward. 

Please copy and paste the following letter and send to President Trump here. 

Dear President Trump,

In 2003 the Alaska Board of Game began to aggressively apply controversial “intensive predator management” practices over a large portion of the state. These abhorrent practices continued in every game management unit with efforts to lengthen hunting/trapping seasons for wolves (as well as increasing bag limits) to opening seasons when pups were young and helpless; bears were snared and trapped-body parts sold. Private pilots, over a hundred, were licensed to shoot wolves from the air. The program eliminated the need for hunters to obtain or purchase hunting tags or permits for predators, thereby permitting the “incidental” taking of these animals; same day airborne hunting and trapping which allow taking the same day one flies in an aircraft; allowing easier and greater use of motor vehicles while hunting to increase the hunter’s advantage; expanding the allowable means and methods of hunting for predators, like baiting or feeding, thereby creating additional opportunities for taking; allowing the sale of raw hides and skulls thereby creating economic incentives for taking; and many others.

Clearly, existing mandates for the conservation of natural and biological integrity and environmental health on refuges in Alaska were disregarded, prompting USFWS to issue the Alaska National Wildlife Refuges Rule, which formally established a goal of biodiversity as the guiding principle of  federal management of wildlife refuges. The rule made it quite clear it would have no impact on subsistence hunters.  

The Alaska National Wildlife Refuges Rule follows the law and manages the refuges as Congress intended. Signing H.J.Resolution 69 into law would unleash cruel, egregious, aggressive, sustained slaughter purportedly aimed at increasing ungulate herds, whilst defying the need for a balanced ecosystem and the predator-prey relationship. H.J. Resolution 69 would undue a rule that, in all actuality, helps maintain a balanced ecosystem necessary for the future of subsistence hunting. “The Service fully recognizes and considers that rural residents are dependent on refuge resources and manages for this use consistent with the conservation of species and habitats in their natural diversity.”  

The states do not have a right to dictate what happens on our National Wildlife Refuges, and I ask that you veto H.J. Resolution 69. 

Thank you for your time and consideration of this extremely urgent matter.

Regards,
Your name

 The Wilderness Act (16 U.S.C. 1131) states that wilderness “is hereby recognized as an area which is protected and managed so as to preserve its natural condition…freedom of a landscape from the human intent to permanently intervene, alter, control, or manipulate natural conditions or processes.”

TWEETS (All tweets are automated, just tap ” Tweet4Wolves” at the end of each message, be sure to close your twitter window prior to tweeting) :   

1. The aerial hunting of wolves is a tragedy beyond description @POTUS Veto #HJResolution69  bit.ly/AerialHunt   Tweet4Wolves  

2. Veto #HJResolution69 Please tweet this link: bit.ly/2nBiTw9   Tweet4Wolves

3. Call @POTUS Tell him to Veto #HJResolution69  202-456-1111  pic.twitter.com/78OD7bp7oK      Tweet4Wolves 

4. Activities in wildlife preserves remain subject to Federal Law, including mandates under ANLICA. Veto #HJResolution69 @POTUS  Tweet4Wolves

5. Since 1994 #Alaska has prioritized human consumptive use of ungulates compromising biological integrity! Veto #HJResolution69 @POTUS  Tweet4Wolves

 6. BOG designates ungulate populations as highest priority use, setting objectives 4 abundance for consumptive use Veto #HJResolution69 @POTUS  Tweet4Wolves

7. To that end, BOG must “adopt regulations to provide for I.M.programs disrupting natural diversity! Veto #HJResolution69 @POTUS  Tweet4Wolves 

8. Alaska’s targeted reduction of wolves/bears impact wildlife resources, natural systems & ecological processes Veto #HJResolution69 @POTUS  Tweet4Wolves

9. The Intensive Predator Management also impacts conservation and management of species on adjacent Refuges Veto #HJResolution69 @POTUS  Tweet4Wolves  

10. #Alaska regulations increase take of predators to a degree that disrupts natural processes. Veto #HJResolution69 @POTUS   Tweet4Wolves 

11. BOG allows”harvest”of brown bears at registered black bear bait stations, in direct conflict w/refuge mandates Veto #HJResolution69 @POTUS  Tweet4Wolves

12. #Alaska allows taking wolves & coyotes, including pups, during denning season! Veto #HJResolution69 which sanctions #AnimalCruelty @POTUS    Tweet4Wolves

13. #Alaska expanded predator season lengths inconsistent with maintaining predator/prey balance. Veto #HJResolution69 @POTUS  Tweet4Wolves

14. #Alaska game board increased bag limits of predators inconsistent with maintaining predator/prey balance. Veto #HJResolution69 @POTUS  Tweet4Wolves 

15. Veto #HJResolution69 @POTUS #Alaska classified black bears as both furbearers and big game species…1. pic.twitter.com/5E2TBBVtLK  Tweet4Wolves

16. 2. which could allow 4 trapping/snaring & sale of hides & skulls creating economic incentives Veto #HJResolution69 @POTUS  Tweet4Wolves

 17. Veto #HJResolution69 which would allow same-day airborne take of bears at registered bait stations (5 AAC 85) 2 resume @POTUS   Tweet4Wolves

 18. Alaska’s mgmt of wildlife is in direct opposition to legal framework applicable 2 mgmt of the NWR. Veto #HJResolution69 @POTUS  Tweet4Wolves

19. Aerial shooting of wolves and bears by State agency personal would resume under #HJResolution69 Veto #AnimalCruelty @POTUS   Tweet4Wolves 

20. Trapping of wolves by paid contractors would resume under #HJResolution69 Veto this cruelty @POTUS  pic.twitter.com/5E2TBBVtLK    Tweet4Wolves

21. Same-day airborne hunting of #wolves & #bears by the public would resume under #HJResolution69 Veto it! @POTUS  pic.twitter.com/rdabINLWa5   Tweet4Wolves

22. #HJResolution69 allows for the take of any black/brown bears through snaring & baiting by public! Veto the measure @POTUS Tweet4Wolves 

23. 13 of the 16 Refuges in #Alaska contain land within game GMUs designated for “intensive predator management” Veto #HJResolution69 @POTUS  Tweet4Wolves  

24. BOGs liberalized regulations 4 hunting/trapping wolves, bears, coyotes reverse long standing prohibitions. Veto #HJResolution69 @POTUS  Tweet4Wolves 

25. #HJResolution69 would negate a rule which did not change subsistence regulations @POTUS  pic.twitter.com/5E2TBBVtLK   Tweet4Wolves 

26. #HJResolution69 would negate a rule which did not restrict subsistence take @POTUS  pic.twitter.com/5E2TBBVtLK   Tweet4Wolves 

27. The rule did not affect State hunting/regulations consistent with Federal law and refuge policies. Veto #HJResolution69 @POTUS Tweet4Wolves  

28. Veto #HJResolution69 which sanctions #AnimalCruelty on wildlife refuges in #Alaska @POTUS  pic.twitter.com/78OD7bp7oK    Tweet4Wolves 

29. #HJResolution69 would allow nonresident “take” of bears cubs or sows with cubs at dens sites! Veto this abhorrent measure @POTUS  Tweet4Wolves 

30. #HJResolution69 would undo a rule necessary for the future of subsistence hunting: http://bit.ly/2nMfkE4   pic.twitter.com/rdabINLWa5   Tweet4Wolves


    Copyright © 2017  [COPYRIGHT Intheshadowofthewolf, name and webpage]. All Rights Reserved.

    Wyoming Grazing Allotments in Prime Wolf and Grizzly Habitat

    Livestock grazing is promoted, protected and subsidized by federal agencies on approximately 270 million acres of public land in the 11 western states. By destroying vegetation, damaging wildlife habitats and disrupting natural processes, livestock grazing wreaks ecological havoc on riparian areas, rivers, deserts, grasslands and forests alike — causing significant harm to species and the ecosystems on which they  depend.

     “Conservation can be defined as the wise use of our natural environment: it is, in the final analysis, the highest form of  national thrift—the prevention of waste and despoilment while preserving, improving and renewing the quality and usefulness of all our resources.”

    President John F. Kennedy 
    Conservation Message to Congress (1962)

    Presently, Bridger-Teton National Forest permits allow more than 7,000 sheep and 15,000 cattle to graze public land in the Upper Green. The environmental planning document from the Forest Service, which would allow grazing in the area to continue for years to come, proposes to renew livestock grazing permits on 266 square miles of public forestland near the Upper Green River has been released to the public. 
    The USDA Forest Service’s preferred plan calls for retaining grazing rights on all the acreage that is grazed today and slightly reducing the number of livestock allowed to 8,772 cow-calf pairs and yearling cattle. The Bridger-Teton’s proposal (alternative 3) which would reduce the authorized grazing season on four of six allotments, and add 7 miles of fence line is still a nightmare for wolves, grizzlies, the ecosystem and other wildlife.

    Hardly an environmentally friendly plan.

    Take a moment to comment against plans for the future of the massive grazing allotment complex, which is also prime wolf and grizzly habitat. The complex spans the entire* Bridger-Teton National Forest from north to south, spills into the Gros Ventre River drainage, and is an environmental disaster.

    The Forest Service makes the outrageous claim that their proposal is a “livestock grazing strategy designed to maintain existing rangeland and riparian conditions where they meet desired conditions and improve rangeland and riparian conditions in areas of concern.”

    The Upper Green rangeland is the most concentrated area for grizzly bear conflict in the entire Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. A year ago, 80 livestock were confirmed killed by the large carnivores, and five chronically depredating grizzlies were captured and killed in return. Numerous wolves have also been removed for the crime of consumption of the “wrong ungulate”.

    Beyond the Fish and Wildlife-directed guidelines, the Bridger-Teton’s plan introduces no new required nonlethal techniques to stem grizzly-cattle conflict. Forest planners hope to finalize the document before the next grazing season, by which time grizzly bears may be managed by Wyoming.

    Three other alternatives are included in the Bridger-Teton’s lengthy planning document.

    One option would take “no action” and allow no livestock on the rangeland, and another would continue the grazing regime as it occurs today. A fourth alternative focuses on reducing damage to riparian areas from cattle grazing.

    Comments on the BridgerTetons draft plans for the Upper Green rangeland are due by November 21st. More information can be found here.

    Comment on The Upper Green River Area Rangeland #3049 project here

    Read the alternative options here.

    *The 323-square-mile public lands rangeland complex in the Upper Green is the largest grazing allotment in the U.S. Forest Service system. The draft plan includes grazing permits on 266 square miles of this area. 
    *The allotments are the site of about 40 bear-livestock conflicts a year, according to Forest Service documents.

    Before September 23rd 2014, when the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia ruled against the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s (USFWS) delisting of wolves in Wyoming, life for a wolf was miserable, designated and “managed” as Trophy Game Animals in the Northwest
    (just $18 for Wyoming residents to ‘bag their trophy”). In the rest of Wyoming, designated as Predatory Animals subject to an on-sight shooting policy, killed by any means, at any time, without a license. Should wolves lose their protected status in Wyoming, the species will be subject to this sort of mismanagement within the Bridger-Teton National Forest.

    National Forests and Other Public Lands 
    should not be managed for the profit margin of private businesses. Period.

    The Forest Service allows people to enter into a publicly owned national forest to kill wolves, often without restrictions. Wildlife is one of the five purposes of the national forests under the Multiple Use Sustained Yield Act, and the Forest Service is obligated to manage for healthy, viable populations of wildlife under the National Forest Management Act and the agency’s own regulations.


    Please take a few moments of your time to comment against livestock grazing in the Bridger-Teton National Forest.  Eliminating livestock grazing on this enormous allotment might possibly do more for grizzly bears and wolves than any other area in Wyoming.

    Please select Alternative One ~ No Livestock Grazing
    Under alternative one, livestock would no longer be permitted to graze in the six allotments on the Upper Green River project area. Livestock grazing would be eliminated and current term grazing permits would be cancelled. Livestock grazing would cease two years after notice of cancellation.

    The animal and plant populations of the west evolved in an ecosystem that relied on a certain amount of grazing by native animal populations, but the level of grazing that accompanied the introduction of cattle in the last 300 years disrupts the symbiotic relationships of native plants and animals.

    Send a tweet to your following:
    Help save #Wyoming #wolves #grizzlies #wildlife Comment against largest @forestservice grazing allotments by 11/21 
    http://wp.me/p6o9qd-11g Tweet this 

    Talking points:

    • Numerous studies have documented that the mere presence of domestic animals displaces native species.
      
    • It is impossible to produce livestock in the west without a multitude of negative impacts including soil erosion and compaction, water pollution, the spread of invasive weeds, spread of disease from domestic animals to wildlife, changes in plant community structure, interruption of natural nutrient cycles, disruption of natural fire regimes, degradation of riparian zones (the majority of riparian areas on public lands are not what hydrologist’s term “proper functioning condition”).

    • With livestock comes the removal of predators like wolves and grizzlies.

    • With livestock comes the removal of “pests” such as prairie dogs, a competitor of livestock, which were reduced in population to less than 1 percent of their estimated pre-19th century numbers. Because prairie dogs share dependencies with approximately 200 other wildlife species of the prairie ecosystem, their decimation led to drastic declines in the populations of these other animals. Among them, none had been more adversely affected than the black-footed ferret. Once numbering in the tens of millions, by 1986 the species had dwindled to only 18 free-living individuals.

    • The degradation and domestication of our public lands with fencing, water tanks, pipelines, and other infrastructure designed to make our public lands better “stock yards” for the benefit of the few ~ public lands ranchers. Livestock grazing infrastructure, commonly bought and paid for by the American tax-payer, has quite literally tamed the once wild West.  Hundreds of thousands of miles of fencing on public lands have obstructed natural wildlife movement the migration of native ungulates, which can lead to death during times of environmental stress, such as droughts and blizzards.
    Water developments built to facilitate livestock use of public lands have dewatered springs, seeps, and streams which serve as critical habitats for a variety of wildlife across the West.

    • There are very few places in the West where native ungulates like bighorn sheep, deer, and elk are at their true biological carrying capacity because the bulk of forage is allotted to domestic livestock. Overgrazing by cattle can literally extirpate native vegetation. In one study, scientists found that domestic livestock grazing consumed 88.8 percent of the available forage. Fewer elk, deer, pronghorn antelope, bighorn, and even bison, means that is that much less prey is available to sustain wolves, and other top predators.

    •  In the United States, livestock grazing has contributed to the listing of 22 percent of federal threatened and endangered species—almost equal to logging (12 percent) and mining (11 percent) combined. Nationwide, livestock grazing is the 4th major cause of species endangerment and the 2nd major cause of endangerment of plant species. No other human activity in the West is as responsible for the decline or loss of species as is livestock production.

    References and Related content:

    Veterinarians in Wildlife and Ecosystem Health Excerpt

    Public Lands Ranching

    The  Case against Public Lands Livestock Production

    No Such Thing As PredatorFriendly Beef 

    16 wolves get death penalty for eating into Wyoming cattle rancher profits

    3 wolves in problematic pack targeted after livestock loss

    Why Wipe Wolves from Most of Wyoming

    Wyoming Court Seeking Control of Wolves

    Wolves, livestock clash all around Wyoming

    Public Lands Grazing 

    BTNF cuddles ranchers on Upper Green

    Upper Green Grazing Analysis Out

    Sierra Club’s Grazing Campaign 

    Feature image by Christi Sabin.  All other photography by Chris Montano Jr.

    Copyright © 2016 

    [COPYRIGHT Intheshadowofthewolf, name and webpage]. All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

     

    Delisting Grizzlies

    Federal delisting and subsequent hunting, as well as the imminent extinction of a key food source, due to global warming, spell disaster for the iconic grizzly bears of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

    Grizzly bears feel the effects of climate change in more ways than just an untimely end to hibernation; as the whitebark pine tree succumbs to the effects of global warming, the grizzlies primary food source (nuts from the tree) is rapidly disappearing with the tree facing possible extinction from the park (80 percent of the stands are dead or dying). Once common in harsh mountain environments, the tree is being pushed out of its sub-alpine habitat thanks to a warming climate, causing the treeline to migrate to higher elevations.

    The whitebark pine is also a victim of the pine beetle, the insect responsible for the destruction of hundreds of thousands of acres of forests across the West. Pine bark larvae have higher survival rates in warmer winters and the infestation, at this stage, seems unstoppable (In 2011 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service determined the tree warrants protection under the  Endangered Species Act). In the Yellowstone park area the tree is nearly gone: “No amount of science or management will bring the trees back in our lifetime.111114-grizzly-399-135_1.jpg

    In 2007, this massive die off of whitebark pine trees added hardship to the misery which the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem distinct population segment of grizzly bear population had to face, as they were removed from the threatened species list, and the “Conservation Strategy” was implemented. Our warming planet’s effect on grizzly bear habitat and food source was obviously of no great concern to Fish and Wildlife when making this choice to delist the Yellowstone grizzly.

    FWS argues that whitebark seeds are not a naturally reliable food source, and that grizzlies have been coping for millennia by switching to other foods when whitebark pine seeds are unavailable by consuming other “readily available” foods such as ungulates, ground squirrels, insects, roots, mushrooms, and other vegetative matter. However, what must, and should, be emphasized is the fact that the grizzly bear population increases at a slower rate when the whitebark seed is scarce. It is well documented that good whitebark cone crops decrease grizzly mortality and increase the number of bear cubs per litter. For Grizzlies, one of the world’s slowest-reproducing mammals, this issue cannot be ignored when considering delisting this iconic species. 

    111114-grizzly-399-088_1.jpg

    Directly after removal from protections, in 2008, Grizzlies died in record numbers, there were virtually no penalties for killing them. Bear management had been turned over to fish and game agencies of Wyoming, Idaho and Montana who more than welcome the “opportunity to kill a Grizzly”, a bear whose life was made less valuable by delisting. Some 54 grizzly bears  — including 37 shot by humans — were known to have died that year, the highest mortality ever recorded; exceeding the extensive killings of 40 years ago when Yellowstone National Park closed down its garbage dumps leaving the bears to search for food sources in towns and campgrounds.

    Thankfully, in 2009, in a strongly worded order, U.S. District Judge Donald W. Molloy, overturned  the delisting ruling, placing grizzly bears back on the threatened species list claiming: (1) the Conservation Strategy was unenforceable, and (2) that the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service did not adequately consider the impacts of the potential loss of whitebark pine nuts.

    As if we hadn’t learned our lesson from prior grizzly strategies, we find ourselves at the crossroads of further endangering the very existence of our beloved Grizzlies by delisting a species struggling to survive in our ever-changing and warming world. Further complicating the situation (as if it wasn’t bad enough, already) the Yellowstone grizzly bear population suffers from increasingly fragmented and disconnected habitats, according to a report released by the Endangered Species Coalition, which highlights ten rare or endangered species that lack safe, navigable corridors to connect them to important habitat or other populations. Without wildlife corridors, migration routes, and other connected habitat, wildlife like grizzlies cannot continue to reproduce, find food, disperse, and maintain enough diversity in their populations to survive into the future.

    Before I continue, let’s take a moment out to watch and enjoy a Yellowstone National Park Grizzly Bear Mother and her cubs on Vimeo.

    screenshot_2016-03-14-11-55-29_1.jpg

    Delisting Grizzlies in the face of undeniable threats to the bear’s future as a species is hardly a decision based on sound science. Turning the bears’ management over to the fish and game agencies of Wyoming, Idaho and Montana, who not only accept practically any hunter explanation (self-defense or otherwise) for taking a grizzly but who find it perfectly acceptable to “euthanize” a 13 year old mother grizzly, who had cubs by her side for eating apples from a tree! The officials in Idaho determined the adult bear had become “habituated to human-related food”. 

    And what of Grizzly 399, an elderly 20 year old grizzly, who has brought joy to countless park visitors, famous for tolerating people and for teaching her cubs how to live amicably near roads and developed areas? What will happen when 399 and other park bears lose their Endangered Species Act (ESA) protections—possibly as soon as this spring—when the states of Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho jump at the opportunity to implement a “sport” hunt that could kill as many as 30 bears in the next year alone? I shudder at the thought of the betrayal these bears will face. From Counterpunch:

    “The first bears to be killed in a trophy sport hunt are likely to be celebrities such as Grizzly 399 that make their living along roadsides in Grand Teton and Yellowstone Parks, where they give thousands of visitors the thrill of a lifetime. These tolerant bears, which live partly on National Forest lands outside parks, would be especially vulnerable to hunting if federal protections are lifted later this year. These bears are comfortable with people and would be relatively easy to find. Moreover, certain local thugs have stated outright that they will be out to kill these much-beloved grizzlies—out of spite.”

    With the quality of grizzly habitat eroding due to global warming, and whitebark pine nuts almost completely eliminated from grizzly bear diets, grizzlies in this island ecosystem will be severely stressed. Yellowstone grizzlies will require more public land to roam, not only for “readily available” food sources but also so they can maintain genetic diversity by breeding with other grizzly bear populations.

    The most important move the government could make (other than an effective plan to help people and bears avoid conflicts) would be to keep the grizzly population of Yellowstone protected under the ESA.

    Please submit your comment against removing ESA protections for the grizzlies of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem here. Please note that submissions merely supporting or opposing a potential delisting, without supporting documentation, will not be considered in making a determination.

    Comments are due May 10 2016, at 11:59 PM Eastern time.

    Please sign these petitions:

    Protect Grizzly Bears in Idaho, Montana and Wyoming

    Please continue Endangered Species Act protections for grizzly bears of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

    Keep Yellowstone Grizzlies Protected under the ESA

    Don’t delist YNP Grizzlies

    Don’t kill protections for Yellowstone Grizzlies

    Help protect grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem!

    Protect the Greater Yellowstone grizzly– Stop the delisting!

    Facebook pages devoted to Yellowstone bears: Hey Bear | GOAL Tribal Coalition  and Greater Yellowstone Bears. Also reach out to Campaign for Yellowstone’s Wolves who will be holding rallies this summer for the benefit of the park bears and wolves.

    .@USFWS @DirectorDanAshe Please maintain Endangered Species Act protections 4 #GrizzlyBears #DontDelistGrizzlies pic.twitter.com/PRsBST6s4w Send a tweet for grizzlies

    All images used in this blog post are of Grizzly 399 and are by Bradly J. Boner (with the exception of the vimeo)

    Op-Ed by Doug Peacock who has been writing and lecturing about Yellowstone bears for more than 40 years.

    Related content

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    Copyright © 2015 [COPYRIGHT Intheshadowofthewolf, name and webpage]. All Rights Reserved.

    No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher.